King Street

From theislandwiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Shoppingicon.png


Shopping street


King Street in 1921


King Street is the main shopping area in St Helier, Jersey's capital


1905
Click to see a Google Street View of King Street today

Many people find it surprising, when they see the street name boards today, that King Street, St Helier's premier shopping street, should once have been known as Rue de Derrière (the road at the back), but that is exactly what the street once was.

Meadows

Until the town of St Helier began to expand in the 19th century, there was little or nothing to the north of the Royal Square except meadows and swamps. King Street was an unpaved lane at the back of the houses forming the north side of the square, where the weekly market was held.

The main entrance to the square was from Broad Street at the western end. The principal route from Charing Cross to what was then the centre of the town was along Broad Street, lined with important buildings on either side, and King Street faced the countryside.

Street numbers

We have so far been unable to discover when street numbers were allocated for King Street. Although no street numbers are shown in the 1841 census, the properties had certainly been allocated numbers by the early 1830s, and possibly even earlier. The north side of the street was first developed in the early to mid-18th century. However, these were not commercial properties, but fine homes. Maps of St Helier from 1737 and 1787 do not show individual properties along the north side of King Street, but a thin line of buildings with gardens behind. It was not until the early 19th century that the homes began to be replaced by shops and the street emerged as it is today, flanked on both sides by a continuous line of shops. It can only be after the development of the north side had been completed that the numbering system, with odd numbers on the south and even numbers on the north was introduced.

Precinct

How things have changed over the decades. For a long period King Street became a busy thoroughfare, carrying horses and carts, and then the motor car, buses and other vehicles, from the west of the town to the east, but in the 1970s and 80s, enlightened politicians had the courage first of all to ban through traffic, and then to pave the street as the town's first pedestrian precinct.

It was a slow process. At the beginning the precinct only stretched from Halkett Place to Don Street, in front of Burton's, Woolworth and British Home Stores and cars were allowed to drive up the street from Charing Cross as far as Don Street. The pedestrianised area was not paved at the outset, just in case public opinion forced a change of mind and vehicles were again admitted. But the Jersey public was firmly in support of banning cars from the centre of their town, although the pedestrian area has not spread nearly as far as it was first envisaged might happen.

A German staff car in King Street during the Occupation, as ladies go about their shopping. This must have been 1940, because the street would never have been this busy in later years

Which king?

The history books are silent on exactly when the street's name changed from the old French to King Street, so it is not clear which King was being honoured. The Town of St Helier, the definitive work on the history of the town by Edmund Toulmin Nicolle, covers old and new street names, but is strangely silent on the timing and origins of many of them.

King Street is completely ignored in George Balleine's work The Bailiwick of Jersey, so it is to be hoped that it will receive the coverage it deserves in the new work on the town of St Helier being written by La Société Jersiaise stalwarts Marie-Louise Backhurst and Francis Corbet, when it is eventually published.

Some suggest that the change may perhaps have come about at the same time that the statue of King George II was erected in the Royal Square, but this was 1751, some considerable time before Rue de Derrière ceased to be an insignificant back street. There are plenty of references to the original name well into the 19th century. An article in The Pilot, a Jersey church magazine, in 1971, (it has been suggested that the article, which was unattributed, was written by Balleine, but this cannot be confirmed) suggested that King Street was named in honour of George III, and Queen Street in honour of his wife, Queen Charlotte. This would place the change to between 1760 and 1820 - George III had a particularly long reign, the longest of any British King. This suggestion is also made by Raoul Lempriere in his 1980 work Buildings and Memorials of the Channel Islands in which King Street merits a mere two paragraphs.

This photograph from around the end of the 19th century shows how the property on the right making the corner of King Street and Halkett Place, variously known as No 2 King Street or 1 Halkett Place, jutted out beyond the line of the other properties. When it was rebuilt for Burton's the facade and pavement line were pushed back in line with the rest of the street.

Businesses

Many of the businesses in King Street today are branches of multiples which can be found in many other high streets in the British Islands, but there are others which are unique to Jersey and have been trading for a century or more.

Notable long-established businesses still trading, and others which have now disappeared, include:

Property histories

We have created a series of histories of all the shops in King Street. Follow the links in the list below to articles on individual properties. One factor worth noting in these articles is the number of businesses run by English and French immigrants to the island. Jersey was not a nation of shopkeepers in the 19th century and onwards, with very few records of any shops at all in St Helier until very late in the 18th century. Business was carried out at the market in the Royal Square and then the new premises in Halkett Place, and as the growing population of the town in the early years of the 19th century created a demand for retail outlets, these were mainly provided by outsiders who settled in the island with their families.

No 1 No 2 No 3 No 4 No 5 No 6 No 7 No 8 No 9 No 10
No 11 No 12 No 13 No 14 No 15 No 16 No 17 No 18 No 19 No 20
No 21 No 22 No 23 No 24 No 25 No 26 No 27 No 28 No 29 No 30
No 31 No 32 No 33 No 34 No 35 No 36 No 37 No 38 No 39 No 40
No 41 No 42 No 43 No 44 No 44½ No 45 No 45a No 46 No 47 No 48 No 49 No 50
No 51 No 52 No 53 No 54 No 55 No 55½ No 56 No 57 No 58 No 59 No 60
No 61 No 62 No 63 No 64 No 65 No 66 No 67 No 68 No 69 No 70
No 71 No 72 No 73 No 74 No 75 No 76 No 77 No 78 No 79

Street history

d'Auvergne plaque


Picture gallery

This map of King Street is believed to date from 1913. It shows clearly how relatively small the properties were on the south side of the street, compared with those on the north, which stretched back over what had previously been wet meadowland. Some of the censuses list dozens of households behind the shops which fronted the street, in narrow lanes many of which have now been absorbed into the commercial premises. This was possible because in most cases the lanes were privately owned, the adjoining cottages being let out to families and the shop to a tenant. Very few King Street traders owned their own premises, and although some of the larger enterprises have become owners over the decades, many King Street properties, particularly on the south side, remain in family ownership and command very high rents. The map shows clearly how some properties stretched from King Street through to Broad Street and Vine Street behind, whereas others, at least in 1913, were separate properties. Notice how New Street narrows as it meets King Street. This junction was later widened with the loss of one street number on the north side of King Street.

Click on any image to see a larger version

A Noel and Porter van heads a queue of traffic
Cobbles in 1890
The street is decorated, either for the Coronation in 1953, or the Queen's visit in 1957
British Home Stores, 1968, and the street is still open to traffic all day

Business adverts

Views
Personal tools
Navigation
Toolbox
Donate

Please support theislandwiki.org with a donation to our hosting costs